In this exercise and lesson you will be introduced to flying the aircraft with reference to instruments only.
• Exercises 24
• AIM AIR 3.0
• Ground School and PGI Notes
• Study the Abnormal and Emergency sections in the POH
• Review the POH (chapter 7 aircraft systems) to develop a better understanding of how or why a malfunction would occur or to understand how different systems affect the aircraft’s instrument indications.
• Review the FTM and PGI notes for full panel instrument flying.
• Review human factors associated when flying with reference to instruments only (Hint: look in the AIM).
• Review operation of the aircraft flight instruments (6 pack + compass) – how they operate and the errors associated with each.
• Be able to answer the following questions:
1. What instrument would you check to see if you are skidding or slipping?
2. What are the control instruments?
3. As the power is decreased which way will the aircraft yaw?
4. What performance instruments give you the information you need for straight and level flight?
5. Describe the illusion you would anticipate while accelerating when flying with reference to instruments?
6. Explain what you would do if you inadvertently flew into cloud?
7. What are the VFR weather minima in controlled and uncontrolled airspace?
8. Why is it important to know all of the emergency procedures?
9. During a climb, you can check that the climb attitude is set on the attitude indicator by checking which instrument?
10. What are two potentially hazardous flight attitudes?
• Write down your questions!
Tips/Rules of Thumb/Theory
• Radial scan starts from the attitude indicator and radiates like spokes of a wheel and is adjusted for information needed.
• Don’t take your eyes off the attitude for longer than it takes to “briefly” look at two other instruments.
• When applying the radial scan always ask yourself: What information do I need? Which instruments give me the needed information? Is the information reliable?
• Always ensure that you use the instruments that give you indirect information to verify that your primary (direct information) instruments are reliable.
• 100 rpm = 5 knots and 100 rpm = 100 feet/min
• Climb: APT and Descent: PAT
• As you approach your desired altitude lead the leveling off by approximately 10% of your rate of climb as a rule of thumb)
• When descending at constant airspeed and constant rate, use attitude to control airspeed and power to control the rate of descent.
• Regularly check that the aircraft is properly trimmed (momentarily let go of the controls and monitor for pitch changes).
• Remember normal pitch attitudes do not exceed 10 degrees above the horizon or 3-4 degrees below the horizon.
• Rate one turn = 10% of your airspeed plus 7.
• Lead the roll out by approximately ½ the bank angle.
• Make your large and small changes with the attitude indicator (i.e. don’t try to adjust altitude by flying the altimeter).