HomeExercise 21 - Precautionary Approach

Exercise 21 - Precautionary Approach

Relate this lesson as much as possible to circuits and incorporate illusions created by drift. When introducing the lesson, try it at the end of a forced approach lesson, after a diversion or when simply navigating to another aerodrome. This can be broken into two parts: unfamiliar aerodrome and unfamiliar surface.

 

Unfamiliar Aerodrome

If you and the student both know you will fly to another aerodrome, it is worth briefing the weather and circuit joining procedures at your destination aerodrome. This will make the flying and learning easier when there is a plan. Suggest drawing an airport diagram with simple arrows and altitudes written on how to join the circuit and how to fly it.

Circuit Joining

  • In unsure of wind do an inspection 500' above circuit elevation
  • Solicit student's opinion on circuit joining procedure
  • Correctly join circuit based on existing procedures
  • Joining overhead the field constitutes a high inspection
  • While doing the high inspection, ensure the student has the whole field visible on their side

 

Low Inspection

  • Can be conducted at 500' or lower
  • Extend downwind 5 seconds than normal to allow student more time to configure on final
  • Select flap and airspeed as appropriate for aircraft type on base
  • Maintain a safe altitude for field inspection
  • Fly to the right of the field to allow for inspection
  • Ensure the aircraft is properly trimmed
  • Recall COWLS or HOWLS from ground and go through the checklist together on low inspection
  • Ensure the whole airport environment is considered including terrain before or beyond runway
    • Terrain before the runway can cause illusions making us think we are low/high
    • Point out terrain and its impact on flight safety during any approach
  • Execute missed approach and retract flaps

If the low inspection was not done properly, do it again until adequate information is gathered on the field

Student Practice 

 

Landing

  • If the low inspection was good and a landing is considered
  • Consider 3 Ps
    • Pre-landing checklist
    • Passenger Briefing
    • Pan Pan (IF required)
  • Complete and approach and landing based on the field conditions

Student Practice 

 

Unprepared Surface

Circuit Joining

  • Solicit student's opinion on circuit joining procedure
  • Correctly join circuit based on wind

 

High Inspection

  • Can be completed when crossing overhead the field for a mid-downwind 
  • Otherwise on base select flap and airspeed as per POH or approach flap and airspeed
  • Maintain 1000' and inspect the field flying to the right of it
  • Complete HOWLS or COWLS Check (Houses/Civilization, Obstacles, Wind, Length, Surface)
  • Clean the aircraft up and determine if investing any more time in this field is appropriate

Student Practice 

 

Low Inspection

  • Can be conducted at 500' or lower
  • Extend downwind 5 seconds than normal to allow student more time to configure on final
  • Select flap and airspeed as appropriate for aircraft type on base
  • Maintain a safe altitude for field inspection
  • Fly to the right of the field to allow for inspection
  • Ensure the aircraft is properly trimmed
  • Recall COWLS or HOWLS from ground and go through the checklist together on low inspection
  • Ensure the whole airport environment is considered including terrain before or beyond runway
    • Terrain before the runway can cause illusions making us think we are low/high
    • Point out terrain and its impact on flight safety during any approach
  • Execute missed approach and retract flaps

If the low inspection was not done properly, do it again until adequate information is gathered on the field

Student Practice 

 

Landing

  • If the low inspection was good and a landing is considered
  • Consider 3 Ps
    • Pre-landing checklist
    • Passenger Briefing
    • Pan Pan (IF required)
  • Complete and approach and landing based on the field conditions

Student Practice 

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